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MLA 8th Edition Citation Guide


Note that MLA recommends the inclusion of URLs for electronic sources, but leaves it up to the discretion of your instructor.

If your instructor tells you not to include URLs, then do not include them.

To use the examples in this guide without a URL, drop the URL and put a period at the end of your citation.

In general, MLA recommends the following:

  • Include the DOI instead of a URL if present.
  • If there is no DOI, include the permanent URL or permalink. This is also sometimes called a bookmark.
  • If there is no permanent URL given, use whatever URL is present.